Monday, May 25, 2020

Are All the Elements Discovered Already

Dmitri Mendeleev is credited with making the first periodic table that resembles the modern periodic table. His table ordered the elements by increasing atomic weight (we use atomic number today). He could see recurring trends, or periodicity, in the properties of the elements. His table could be used to predict the existence and characteristics of elements that hadnt been discovered. When you look at the modern periodic table, you wont see gaps and spaces in the order of the elements. New elements arent exactly discovered anymore. However, they can be made, using particle accelerators and nuclear reactions. A new element is made by adding a proton (or more than one) to a pre-existing element. This can be done by smashing protons into atoms or by colliding atoms with each other. The last few elements in the table will have numbers or names, depending on which table you use. All of the new elements are highly radioactive. Its difficult to prove that you have made a new element, because it decays so quickly. How New Elements Are Named

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Trifles By Susan Glaspell Analysis - 1738 Words

There is a harsh reality that many individuals tend to ignore. In these modern times most women dont realize the struggle women before them had to undergo. In the late 19th century women werent important, respected, or anywhere near equal to men. It was common for women to be misunderstood and or assumed by men to be uncivil. Trifles by Susan Glaspell shows the depiction of women towards the end of the 1800s. Men werent as kind or laid back when it came to running the household and handling every day matters as a family. Men were dominant. It was the patriarchal ignorance of the late 19th century that bred isolation within women and lead to their loss of identity and mental instability. The patriarchal role of men in society created a†¦show more content†¦The relationship men and women had werent as easily communicated. During the close of the 19th century womens roles werent as significant as they are now. Most women had to be housewives and take care of the duties and responsibilities that followed that. â€Å"Altogether a housewife spent four hours every day sifting ashes, adjusting dampers, lighting fires, carrying coal or wood, and rubbing the stove with thick black wax to keep it from rusting† (Digital History). Within Trifles, Mrs.Wright posed as a housewife who undergoes rigorous activities in order to maintain a good home and a content husband. In those times, â€Å"she also had to know how to prepare unprocessed food for consumption† (Digital History). The text within Trifles reveals to its readers that house work was a very critical responsibility when Mrs.Hale notes that â€Å"she’ll feel awful bad after all her hard work in the hot weather† (Gaspell 748). Mrs.Wright had to prepare unprocessed food as well as make sure the house is clean. The process of cleani ng wasnt as easy as it is now. In this time there are tools that make the process of cleaning go swifter such as the mop, the broom, the vacuum machine, the washer and dryer, and even the dishwasher. However, for women in the late 1800s, â€Å"washing, boiling, rinsing a single load of laundry used about 50 gallons of water, over the course of aShow MoreRelatedScript Analysis of Trifles by Susan Glaspell910 Words   |  4 PagesScript Analysis of â€Å"Trifles† by Susan Glaspell Summary   In the play Trifles by Susan Glaspell, there are five characters, three men and two women.   They are in a house where the murder of Mr. Wright took place the day before.   The men are trying to find evidence to name a killer or motivation to name Mrs. Wright as the murderer.   While the men are downstairs, the women occupy themselves with looking around the kitchen and living room.   They take note of Mrs. Wrights canned fruit and the factRead MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell846 Words   |  4 PagesSociety has put abnormal standards between women and men. Our gender equality has been an issue throughout history and legislative rights. In the short play â€Å"Trifles† by author Susan Glaspell, shows the feminist content and the failures of marriages. Mr. and Mrs. Wright had been married for a long time. They don’t have a family and live in a place that’s very solitary aside from any other houses. An investigation occurred to find the strang e death of Mr. Wright and to discovered evidence if Mrs.Read MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell907 Words   |  4 PagesThe play â€Å"Trifles† written by Susan Glaspell is about John Wright who was murdered. When the play begins the county attorney, sheriff, and Mr. Hale are all at Mr. Wright’s home to search for evidence for who murdered him. The two women that are in the poem are Mrs. Peters who is the sheriffs wife, and Mr. Hale’s wife, Mrs. Hale. Minnie Wright is the suspect in Mr. Wright’s case, but they are searching for answers to know exactly what happened. While the men are trying to solve the crime their wivesRead MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell804 Words   |  4 PagesIn the play Trifles, Susan Glaspell creates a situation that at first glance appears to place a woman at fault, but as the readers continue, he/she realizes that the truth is the opposite to what it appears to be. It is interesting to see how the author uses t he image of a perfect husband to portray irony with the hidden theme of isolation and patriarchy within their domestic relationship. This irony leads into Minnie Foster, also called Mrs. Wright, to use the idea of justice vs. law within thisRead MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell1255 Words   |  6 PagesMurder, torture, and mayhem are merely three of the unique problems that can be found throughout the one act play Trifles by Susan Glaspell. The writer opens up the story by explaining the situation of Mrs. Wright, a middle aged woman who is being accused of murdering her husband. The crime scene is a mess. A sheriff, the prosecuting attorney and their wives are looking in to the gruesome death that occurred upstairs in the Wright household. It is immediately found that the men focus their attentionRead MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell1042 Words   |  5 Pagesits underlying meaning can represent to each character individually and together. In the short play  "Trifles† by Susan Glaspell, readers and viewers are taken back to a period that is a lot different than the current. From the surroundings, viewpoints of each sex and their assigned roles in the society all gave a greater understanding of what was portrayed and how it was essentially handled. Trifles started with the Sheriff and his wife Mrs. Peters, Mr. Hale and Mrs. Hale and the County Attorney enteringRead MoreTrifles By Susan Glaspell Analysis1257 Words   |  6 PagesTrifles by Susan Glaspell is a tragic mysterious drama that has to deal with a murderous wife, and a couple of friends who cover up her tracks. Throughout the story Glaspell gives clues to the reader to help him or her figure out what will happen in the end. Glaspell Wrote Trifles in 1916, according to the year it is safe to assume that this mysterious short story was placed in a time around the 1910’s setting. The clues she leaves, such as the quilting square, the bird, the reflections in the settin gRead MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell1425 Words   |  6 PagesIn the play Trifles, by Susan Glaspell, the plot develops through action. As soon as the play begins readers and viewers are introduced to the county attorney, the sheriff, and Mr. Hale. Due to the fact that these three men discuss the case and death of Mr. Wright quite a bit, the audience is made to believe that they are the main characters of the play. However; the true protagonists of the play are revealed as soon as the men departure from the kitchen and leave the characters Mrs. Peters and MrsRead MoreAnalysis Of Trifles By Susan Glaspell1829 Words   |  8 PagesMurder, torture, and mayhem are merely three of the unique problems that can be found throughout the one act play Trifles by Susan Glaspell. The writer opens up the story by explaining the situation of Mrs. Wright, a middle aged woman who is being accused of murdering her husband. The crime scene is a mess. A sheriff, the prosecuting attorney an d their wives are looking in to the gruesome death that occurred upstairs in the Wright household. It is immediately found that the men focus their attentionRead MoreAn Analysis Of Susan Glaspell s Trifles 983 Words   |  4 Pagespreconception someone makes based on gender, race, or religion that in this case is by gender, and affects women based on their expected gender roles. Women endlessly have expectations that go along with being a wife, mother, or simply a female. In Trifles by Susan Glaspell, 1955 by Alice Walker, and Girl by Jamaica Kincaid women are stereotyped by men and told to follow unwritten but expected roles such as being seen and not heard. As well as how they present themselves, their behavior, and tasks they need

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is Art For Me Essay - 1052 Words

Art, for me, is as much about context, message and story as it is about aesthetics. In a sense I believe that works of art that tend to depict social or political issues that are rooted in a particular culture are of high value. In this paper, I aim to introduce an artist whose works have been called obscure, deemed controversial and faced resistance by the society in which she produces her art. I will be comparing her works with several artists we have discussed and read about in the lectures. As a female born and raised in Turkey, I grew up in a society that has strong cultural taboos on nudity and images that depict sexuality in general. Just as the majority of the rest of world, the Turkish culture is based on the ideas of a patriarchal society. Words that we would hear so regularly, such as decency, shame and obscenity are all defined through the female experiences. The society has its own perceptions regarding how women should act or what they should do with their bodies. Although these stinging ideas are lessening, many women still get oppressed and struggle to find their place within the society and the world. Some brave artists are revolting against these systematic thoughts of oppression through their works. I discovered the contemporary Turkish artist, Sukran Moral’s works a few years ago. She’s an artist who addresses and questions the society’s structure and its treatment of women. As we were going through the chapter on Sexuality and Repro duction in the courseShow MoreRelatedArt Allows Me to Leave Reality Essay599 Words   |  3 PagesGood art allows me to flee the realms of reality. In my minds limitless consciousness, I can escape the mundanity of everyday life. It opens a door in my head to a world only limited by my imagination. I am no more a slave to gravity, chained down on the earth when I am reading. I can be a bird and soar high above the clouds, or be a fish and swim deep down in the darkest depths of the ocean. I am there, I am that person, and everything else around me regardless of what it is, fades away. SometimesRead MoreArt Reflection848 Words   |  4 Pagesalways been a huge fan of art class, and I have never despised a day of art class. I think of art class as a way to express creative freedom, discovering your unique art style, and to be with some of the most hard-working and encouraging people Ive ever met, even including the teacher. Art is so very important to me and I dont know what Id be d oing right now if it werent for the art. Ive created a bunch of art to help deal with a lot of things. Mainly saying that I love art. The first thingRead MoreFinding Oneself1248 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Finding my muse, finding myself It is through art, and through art only, that we can realize our perfection ---Oscar Wilde When I was a small child, I was extremely shy. I had to be coaxed to raise my voice in the presence of others. The only time I felt confident was when I was by myself with a handful of crayons in my hand, bent over a piece of paper. While all children love to create art, for me art was more than a way to pass the time. It was a form of self-expression. When I was happy, IRead MoreMy Definition Of Art : One Big Happy Community869 Words   |  4 Pagesit lay, isolated, taunting me. My hand reluctantly slithered into the mailbox, like a frightened snake. My head told me the letter would not change anything, but my heart knew what it wanted. Nerves caused me to nearly lose my mind, as well as my lunch. I sliced the envelope to reveal my fate as well as place in the art program. As my eyes skimmed the text, they grew wide, my heart inflated, and my adrenaline seemed to turn from a boil to a simmer. The news? I was an art major. I am able to do whatRead MoreArt And The Pursuit Of Art1329 Words   |  6 Pages Art has had a profound significance to me throughout my life. As a child, art was my retreat from the mundane of the world. I found a way of communicating the things I was feeling with others around me! It gave me different perspectives and ways of looking at events, emotions, and people. All of these perspectives helped shape me, made me contemplate the individual I wanted to be and how the world behaves. Art answered as many questions as it posed. It made life worth living. From that moment onRead MoreLiberal Arts Education : Becoming A Successful Consultant At Boston Consulting Group969 Words   |  4 PagesThe perception of Liberal Arts education has started to evolve over the years. Initially, Liberal Arts education was considered as a form of elitist education where nobles tried to expand on their knowledge on different topics rather than developing certain skills. However, as time is passing Liberal Arts education is becoming synonymous with personal development and critical thinking. While some people still believe that for a secure financial standing practical education such as going to a businessRead MoreMy Passion For Art701 Words   |  3 Pagesworld and encouraged me to be a brave girl. Then, I tried to paint some pictures from these stories. These involvements inspired my love of painting. Since then, the passion for art has continued to now. Therefore, experiences from my childhood have a deep impact on my personal values, which are adventure and learning. And my passion of art allowed me to develop more professional knowledge to be an arts manager. In my childhood, I looked at fairy tales and these stories inspired me to paint some picturesRead MoreEssay On Student Performance Activating Inside Out1637 Words   |  7 PagesStudent Performance Activating Inside Out.1977/2014 In the art museum the way I tried to see the art is to look at the art then I would read about the photo. Which I realized at is so much more difficult to understand than anything else or why, how, and where is this art piece and why the create it. Some of her art are Unique but some are just not unique or not interest, and basically more random. Of course some people love the art that I have no absolute connection to, which I find to be interestingRead MoreThe Space Of Which We View Art1189 Words   |  5 PagesThe Space in Which We View Art How do we view art? How does the space around the art affect how we feel and think about the art? Does it make a difference? Our surroundings are often very influential in the way we think and feel about events, people, and objects. A relaxed, warm summer evening with family can bring peaceful and positive thoughts, while a loud, crowded party with strangers can bring anxiety and uncomfortableness. Music, color, temperature, and the size of a space can all affect howRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Teaching And Art914 Words   |  4 Pagesa desired career option for myself, more importantly, being an art teacher. With anything, there are pros and cons to my predetermined thesis. I consider myself an artist before I see myself as a teacher, this may be one of the biggest faults in my career choice or one of my greatest advantages in the world of education. The balance between teaching and art may be a difficult obstacle to overcome. From my overwhelming love of the arts to my loathing of school standardization, teaching is a serious

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Risk Assessment and Effective Reporting †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Risk Assessment and Effective Reporting. Answer: Introduction In the year 1916, Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) was established. The main objective of the company is related to vaccination services but during the initial stages, it encountered severe issues that caused massive troubles. However, the hard work of the company allowed it to become effective in the manufacture of antivenom that gained widespread attention. Furthermore, other developments of CSL include the production of tetanus vaccines, polio vaccines, diabetics, etc. All these developments in the field of medicines allowed the company to prosper in the competitive world, thereby assisting it to become a multi-special organization in the development of various medicinal items. Moreover, the largest area of operations of the company is blood plasma derivatives because it is the only organization engaged in the same. In other words, Australia does not have any other company engaged in the same activity. Audit risks are those risks that occur because of incapability on the part of auditors to identify whether the financial statements are free from material misstatements or errors (Messier Emby, 2005). In such a scenario, the auditor will clearly provide an ineffective opinion on the companys financials. Such material misstatements arise because of faulty internal control mechanisms in the organization thereby playing a key role in enhancing the risk levels of a company. Besides, in relation to an auditor, material misstatements are caused due to detection risks wherein the capability of an auditor to identify major issues is inappropriate (Cappelleto, 2010). Such detection risk arises because of the auditors inefficiency and negligence to conduct the audit process. On a whole, the auditor must look at this issue because it may result in dangerous situations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the audit risks of the company, its significant impact upon the companys affairs, and several processes that can play a key role in verifying the balances of accounts affected by such risks. The company pursues a risk and audit management committee within its framework that allows it to take into account every audit risk prevailing within the organization especially in segments like environment, safety, health, compliance, physical assets, etc. Further, many other committees communicate with this committee so that every key issue is communicated and addressed effectively (Vause, 2009). This clarifies the fact that the company is having proper strategies to ensure that every major issue is being taken into account. Moreover, effective internal control mechanisms are also needed within the company affairs to ensure that market disclosures, infringement of copyright or trademark, insider trading, etc are taken into due consideration (CSL, 2016). However, it must be noted that risks can only be mitigated by these procedures and elimination of the same is not possible. These risks are the inherent risks that exist in an organization even though proper internal control policie s are in place (Hoffelder, 2012). It has been noticed that people have become more vulnerable to diseases and problems with due passage of time. As a result, usage of medicines has grown substantially in the current scenario, thereby enhancing the pharmaceutical industries as a whole. These concerns play a key role in the development of research and development department as pharmaceutical industries are inclined towards expending huge resources on this segment in order to survive in the competitive market (CSL, 2016). On a whole, because of this over reliance on innovative technologies to sustain in the market, it is not feasible to determine whether money and time expended on research and development can prove to be successful for the companies. Effect of the audit risk on companys financials It can be observed from the business risks of the company that they pose a huge threat to its affairs. Besides, it is the moral responsibility of an auditor to utilize his professional capacity and expertise in evaluating the audit process so that risks can be identified and mitigated as a whole. Further, owing to immense amounts of resources expended on the research and development department, it becomes necessary to understand the implication and nature of resources spent and thereafter, classifies them based on their nature (ACCA, 2016). Besides, there may be some expenses that can be written off by the company in the upcoming years and therefore, understanding the nature of such expenses is of significant importance with the help of analytical procedures and substantive processes (Roach, 2010). In addition to this, termination of patents also poses a huge threat to the company because when such patents are expired, it is not assured whether these may be renewed or not. Further, the company expends huge resources for the same expired patent in order to assure that it is retained. Due to this concern, there is a risk of material misstatement in the companys financials (Fazal, 2013). Furthermore, intellectual property rights also play a key role in this regard because there are various companies wherein more than half of their incomes are derived from only five particular medicines. Besides, generic medicines also pose additional threats in this regard and therefore, any kind of research that is intended for the same must be carefully evaluated and conducted (Hoffelder, 2012). Another area of audit risk is to differentiate research from development because both these things are separate aspects. The reason behind this can be attributed to the fact that companies expend huge fu nds on the development and lesser resources on research activities. Hence, the auditor must effectively verify this classification of expense because these are covered under the audit risks, thereby spoiling the entire audit process (Gilbert, 2005). In companies wherein more than twenty percent of entire income is expended on such RD affairs, they also consider alternative options. In simple words, if patents are terminated and there is pressure for enhancing innovation measures, there remains no scope for in-house research facilities. Moreover, many companies are keen to take into account options such as collaborations, acquisition, merger, etc so that the research expenses are minimized, thereby playing a key role in enhancing the positive outcomes (Fazal, 2013). Therefore, effective treatment of these admixed expenses betwixt one or more companies pose a threat, thereby becoming one of the major challenges. In addition to these, RD affairs are also sometimes outsourced, thereby creating a scenario wherein the accounts of third parties must also have to be taken care after. Further, there may be a related party transaction in relation to this segment that may be concealed under the disguise of outsourcing affairs and thus, mus t be highly taken into account so that it does not become a major issue (Heeler, 2009). Nevertheless, it may not be mandatory that RD affairs be only intended towards innovation measures. This is because such RD possesses varied roles in different companies. Moreover, in relation to pharmaceutical organizations, it must be noted that they have started providing distinct services in order to ensure that their feasibility of growth is more and risk of loss of patent is minimal. This is because the attraction of new customers is the need of the hour in such increased competition in the market and RD can prove to be of immense benefit in this regard. It is therefore required that any expenses that are made for such concerns must be adequately and efficiently classified especially after determining the nature of such expenses. Nevertheless, these can easily become the key areas of material misstatements in the financial statement of a company. In relation to CSL, it can be seen that the company intends to enhance its research base and for such purpose, it endeavors to compet e for collaborations so that it can enhance its revenues as a whole. Audit process to verify balances of account In relation to financial controls, proper verification measures must be installed so that reasons behind any variations in the pricing structure can be determined. This verification may play a key role for the company to sustain its affairs in a way that can fetch better outcomes. Account balances that must be scrutinized by the company are as under: In relation to contingent liabilities, the cost of RD that may fetch negative outcomes must be disclosed. Moreover, audit processes include a collection of ample evidence in order to ensure the prevalence of contingent liabilities. Hence, if such prevalence can be proved, it can result in better outcomes. The accounting measures for the recognition of revenue must be carefully evaluated so that it can be ascertained whether it aligns with the medicines for which the company owns different patents. Due to the maximum time consumed for the purposes of research, the streams of revenue may be deferred. Therefore, effective disclosure policies must be in place so that corrective actions can be implemented. The key intention behind the acquisition of the company must be carefully evaluated and the audit processes must also ensure that there is a fair measurement of the price of acquisition offered by the company. Some of the companys expenses incurred in the past year may prove to be futile and therefore, they may not fetch positive outcomes. Furthermore, if such expenses become liabilities, adequate provisioning must be duly implemented. Besides, the audit processes must ensure proper disclosure strategies and fair measurement of the accounts (Manoharan, 2011). Therefore, it can be witnessed that various account balances have been affected because of the RD expenses, thereby necessitating verification from all perspectives. Even though the company assures premium quality goods, it is feasible that few medicines respond differently on different persons. Therefore, it can be said that the result may be either negative or positive or both. In grave situations, it can also result in the death of a person, thereby generating possibilities of legal cases against the company (Livne, 2015). Besides, encountering such legal battles necessitate an immense amount of resources that may result in a huge financial loss. Therefore, such litigation poses a threat to the company as an audit risk because it may become impossible for the auditor to anticipate a number of resources spent in the past years. Effect of such risk on the companys financials In Australia, CSL is the only producer of blood items and based on the various records, many scandals have occurred in relation to contaminated blood that may result in the generation of infectious diseases. This is the reason why the company has prepared many cases as well. Besides, in 1996, the company accepted that it had admixed blood from international zones with that of the Australian blood so that rapid distribution can be undertaken. However, this backfired against the company as its share price declined (CSL, 2016). Nevertheless, the expenses incurred by the company are depicted in its income statement but additional costs must be disclosed as contingent liabilities. Moreover, in the case of losses, provisions must be duly framed (Christensen, 2011). The major risk of material misstatement present here is that the auditor may offer an ineffective judgement based on such balances of accounts. The expectation of the auditor of the outcome of such case may also be distinct from the reality, thereby resulting in a material misstatement. Therefore, in order to encounter such risk, it must be noted that an auditor must attain an expert advice from the management so that the list of outstanding litigation cases can be analyzed (ACCA, 2016). Besides, the solicitors and legal advisors may also authenticate the cases from the company. In addition to all this, the penalty amount involved is also a major issue because material misstatement may happen there as well. This is because the company may encounter a liability to expend a massive amount that may not be expected by it. Therefore, the auditor must safeguard such risks by taking into account similar cases so that the accurate amount in such cases can be known and thereafter, decisions can be taken (ACCA, 2016). Therefore, the financial statements of the company may suddenly appear to depict bigger liabilities in the form of various litigation cases, and the auditor may effectively meet this by the implementation of proper audit processes. Audit procedure to verify account balances CSL was accused for providing infected blood of Hepatitis C blood. This indicates that the company suffered from the lack of internal control mechanism and the testing procedure was ineffective in nature. The audit procedure should provide that the testing must be of high quality with proper check and must vouch for surprise checks and audits. Normal and Abnormal Loss The accounts indicates the balances for the blood quantity or other medicines that were contaminated or have become sub-standard for utility. The auditor needs to ascertain the account to evaluate the level normal, as well as abnormal losses and the variations in the levels needs to be ascertained as it provides a notion of the unfair practices adopted by the company to have a hold for holding the market share (KMPG, 2010). Penalties The payment of penalties in the past, the reason for such penalties and the re-occurrence possibility of such cases in the present year or such event happening after the date of balance sheet should come into the procedure of the audit. Such verification will led to sufficient check that needs to be undertaken by the auditor (KMPG, 2010). Grievances and claims settled the grievances of the customers must be audited to ascertain the status of the complaints that is unresolved and by doing this, the auditor must provide an opinion about the liabilities that is potential (KMPG, 2010). The amount that is paid towards the claim must be settled and must be audited to frame an opinion about the future amount that is needed to be paid by the company in such similar situations. The amount paid to various parties under the Legal Expense head needs to be audited in an in-depth manner because every such amount leads to a vital case. This will provide a better explanation about the various expenses that pertains to the organization. Hence, there are some accounts that are needed by to be verified by the auditor. In contrast to this, the auditor must ascertain the possibility of complaints for the similar issues by various parties. Apart from auditing the case, the auditor should ensure whether the testing is proper and internal control is enhanced so as to lessen such issues that are repetitive in nature (Gay Simnet, 2015). Conclusion With the due passage of time, there has been a tremendous advancement in technology, pharmaceutical companies are exposed to litigations and other related risks that pertains to health. The elimination of audit risk is a complete effort by the management and the auditor and needs the coordinated effort of both. The audit and risk committee must perform in tune to the matter raised by the internal and external auditor that adheres to the internal control and the action needed to be taken for the major issues. When it comes to pharmaceuticals, strong internal control mechanism leads to reliability and establishment of a proper risk mitigation policy of CSL has ensured it as a trusted brand. References ACCA 2016, Assessing the risk of material misstatement, viewed 30 August 2017 Cappelleto, G. 2010, Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia, AFAANZ, Melbourne Christensen, J. 2011, Good analytical research, European Accounting Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 41-51 CSL 2016, Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, viewed 30 August 2017, Fazal, H 2013, What is Intimidation threat in auditing?, viewed 30 August 2017 Gay, G Simnet, R 2015, Auditing and Assurance Services, McGraw Hill Gilbert, W, Joseph J Terry J. E 2005, The Use of Control Self-Assessment by Independent Auditors, The CPA Journal, vol.3, pp. 66-92 Heeler, D 2009, Audit Principles, Risk Assessment Effective Reporting, Pearson Press Hoffelder, K 2012, New Audit Standard Encourages More Talking, Harvard Press. KMPG 2010, An overview of Risk and disclosure, viewed 30 August 2017 Livne, G 2015, Threats to Auditor Independence and Possible Remedies, viewed 30 August 2017 Manoharan, T.N. 2011, Financial Statement Fraud and Corporate Governance, The George Washington University. Messier, W Emby, C 2005, Auditing Assurance Services: A systematic approach, McGraw-Hill. Roach, L 2010, Auditor Liability: Liability Limitation Agreements, Pearson. Vause, B 2009, Guide to Analysing Companies, Bloomberg Press

Saturday, April 11, 2020

A New Strategy for Kodak free essay sample

1. Establish five (5) key objectives for Eastman Kodak that encompasses the operational, financial, human resource aspects of the business. Next, argue that each of the established objectives is essential to the success of the company within the Cloud service industry. Kodak is one of the many companies that has succumbed to a disruptive technology some call the digital divide. They recently came out of chapter 11 bankruptcy, which allowed them to restructure the organization. Entering the company at this point and as a business consultant for the company, I would recommend a restructuring of the internal core. Focus on the business’s operational and functional aspects and how to leverage the new venture to increase profitability and sustain a competitive advantage in the industry. To start the process, Kodak should identify a worthy organization and enter into an agreement with a reputable organization to implement the cloud service using the existing Kodak business model. We will write a custom essay sample on A New Strategy for Kodak or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This will reduce the possibility of the selective company to be a competitor. Replicate the business model across the multidivisions to include the new joint venture company that will provide the cloud service. This will provide consistency across the organization and support both organizations goals and objectives building a stronger force in the market. Increase investments in the research and development of the cloud service that will produce innovations and assure the service remains competitive. This is important because technology is a very fast moving industry and the cloud service is a highly technical service that will require constant monitoring of the market to stay abreast with competitors (Khanna, 2013). As for the human resource aspect, with the layoff history and unstable economy, to improve the organization’s infra-structure and avoid risky investments will build confidence in the workforce and retain loyal resources to reduce work force turn over across the multiple business units. Another very important objective is to increase value through differentiation in the service, to improve competitive advantage set long-term goals to improve sustainability in the industry and improve stakeholders return on investment and confidence in the organization (Hill Jones, 2012). 2. Analyze Kodak’s horizontal and vertical integration strategy and determine the corporate level strategy that is more appropriate for the company to establish a competitive advantage in the Cloud service industry. Provide a rationale for the determination. First to identify with horizontal integration as a strategic move to acquire or merge with a competitor organization or an organization which specializes in an industry for which a company want to enter for the sake of establishing a competitive advantage in a desired market. In Kodak’s case, as a strategic plan, I would recommend a merger versus an acquisition at this time. My reasoning for this revolves around the pass history Kodak has with acquisitions and their recent situation from bankruptcy restructuring. The court proceedings allowed them to sell off many of their previous acquisitions. The results of many of those acquisitions are much the cause of Kodak’s’ problems due to ineffective management and non-profitable strategies ventures. A horizontal integration would be effective only given that Kodak choose the appropriate strategic partner for which to enter an agreement for the cloud service industry. I would recommend Kodak business unit research the target businesses for their credibility, core competencies and goals to include business compatibility for strategic business approach and an overall business fit (Hill Jones, 2012). Not only will this be a beneficial for the horizontal integration, but for the vertical integration as well. Horizontal integration has several benefits that would be good for Kodak. First, it lowers the cost structure they would have to pay compared to what would be paid for an acquisition. Second, it increases product differentiation with the merging of innovations. Third, the companies are seeking to replicate their business model for the venture. For the integration to work, the two companies’ business models need to be the same. Forth, the merger or acquisition helps to reduce industry rivalry. Lastly, it would increase the bargaining power when bargaining with suppliers and buyers. The vertical integration Kodak should ensure their internal core competencies are compatible with the merging company. Vertical integration is based on Kodak entering the cloud industry for the purpose of adding value to their core products in imaging. For Kodak, vertical integration will be used to expand its operations backward into the cloud industry since the cloud service will produce an input for the company’s imaging products (Hill Jones, 2012). 3. Determine five (5) ways in which pursuing a multibusiness model based on diversification may increase profitability for the company. Provide at least two (2) examples of such use of a multibusiness model from industry to support the rationale. Kodak has a long history in pursuing the multibusiness model. However, many of those ventures were unsuccessful at being profitable for the company. Kodak’s desire to enter into the cloud service can be a complement to their core industry and its competencies. There are five primary ways in which pursuing a multibusiness model based on diversification can increase company profitability. For Kodak, to diversify to increase profitability, their strategic managers should seek to employ the following strategies, transfer competencies between the two business units because they a of different industries, leverage those competencies to create business units in the new industry of cloud service, share their resources between business units to develop collaboration between the units to achieve their goals, utilize or implement product bundling, and utilize common organizational competencies to increase the performance of all company business units (Hill Jones, 2012). 4. Recommend one (1) implementation strategy for Eastman Kodak that considers organizational design, strategic control systems, structure, and the type of organizational culture fitting for the organization and its new industry. Justify the recommendation. Eastman Kodak is a company that is well seem to welcome diversification. They have previous experience and knowledge of how to operate across borders. Although they have acquired and merged with various organizations outside of their industry, some of their efforts were not profitable. In this instance I believe that they will be cognizant of the strategies that are better suited for their new industry venture. As a business consultant I will recommend an implementing strategy that is best suited for organizations that compete across industries and countries (Hill Jones, 2012). Eastman Kodak is a multibusiness organization with multiple divisions across many countries. Adding a cloud service to their value-chain it will be in their best interest to apply their focus to a revised organizational design within their multidivisional structure. A multidivisional structure has the characteristics that will allow for change or adjustments to the design over time as needed. One advantage is this can allow the company for which they enter into a merger agreement to function as a self-contained business unit that can be advised and adjusted when it becomes visible that their strategy does not correspond well with Kodak’s. This holds true for strategic control systems, structure and ensuring that the other organization’s culture is compatible with Kodak (Hill Jones, 2012). 5. Speculate on the way in which both the corporate-level strategy and the implementation strategy you recommended in Question 2 and Question 4 would support ethical business behaviors. Analyze the significant manner in which ethics, corporate social responsibility, and environmental sustainability impact the implementation of the strategies that you have recommended. I believe that of the strategies I previously selected, the concerns about ethics, corporate social responsibility, and environmental sustainability all will rely on the internal structure of both organizations. This is one reason I feel the Kodak and the new company should implement a decentralized their management hierarchy. This will remove the bulk of decision making from the responsibility of one person. In earlier years Kodak’s CEOs seem to have kept the decision making process centralized (Hill Jones, 2012). Although previous CEOs made decisions in good faith and efforts to grow the business and improve profitability, many of the ventures were unsuccessful. With a decentralized management system in place I believe that they will improve in the corporate social responsibility area. Nonetheless, ethics do not seem to be a factor for Kodak (Hill Jones, 2012). The implementation of corporate level and implementation strategies I selected both encompass a focus on these areas. Kodak already have good business ethics, corporate governance mechanisms, social and environmental strategies in place, the same concepts must be applied across the multidivisions to include the merger company. For the merger to be successful, the other company need to have similar ethics, corporate social responsibility, and environmental sustainability processes in place or adapt and/or merge organizational cultures. A good example of an organization for which may not have had a transparent full disclosure process in place was the Goldman-Sachs investment business. Investors unknowingly invested in risky mortgages without being aware, and that one person conducting the transactions was not fully disclosing the truth about their investments. The entire situation may have been avoided or mediated had Goldman-Sachs had a corporate process in place to govern the approval of the evaluation of risky transactions as such. I would think that a board of representatives should have to approve such transactions. The board should be assembled to function in the best interest of the company to evaluate transactions for possible ethical violations, to also ensure that the processes prove to be of good corporate and social responsibility in that they do not bring harm to the banking industry. The failure to monitor such actions caused devastating hardships on the housing industry and mortgage banking. The company was fined millions and their inattentiveness to one person’s actions posed great threat to the financial economy (Helweg, 2010) (Hill Jones, 2012).

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Startups in Publishing †IPR License

Startups in Publishing – IPR License Startups in Publishing – IPR License What’s the â€Å"publishing industry†, really? It’s a mixture of a lot of companies, big and small, that all revolve around authors, books and readers. The big ones have been shaken by the digital disruption and are only now realizing the truth of â€Å"adapt or die†. And because they’re big, this will now obviously take time, as Hugh Howey recently pointed out (quite accurately).That’s where the smaller cogs in the wheel come in–and I’m going to say â€Å"we†, as Reedsy is a part of the machine, and I’m a part of Reedsy. Since the digital disruption, the landscape of publishing has become a fabulous playing ground for many startups. So many, in fact, that I hear this question a lot when presenting Reedsy: â€Å"Do you really think we need yet another self-publishing/digital publishing company?†My answer is usually a version of: â€Å"Are you satisfied by the current state of this industry? Do you think ind ependent publishing has now been made a simple process? Do you think we’ve all finally, fully embraced the digital disruption?† I dare you to say yes.Here at Reedsy, we’re big fans of all the little ships that enter the vast ocean of book publishing with the certainty that they will make a difference. We believe they will be the ones fashioning the future of the industry and turning it into something coherent and adapted to these modern, digital times.To celebrate them, we have decided to create a serial on startups that we will be publishing every Monday on this blog. These are all startups actually providing fantastic value to authors, and which we believe will play an important role in the future of publishing. For this reason, they are all startups that Reedsy is or will be partnering with in the near future.Today, we start with IPR License, the first and only online platform on which to acquire subsidiary book rights and permissions on a global scale. It was founded by Tom Chalmers back in 2012 and has greatly grown since. Read our interview with Tom below.RF: Why did you start IPR? What’s the founder’s story?Tom Chalmers: I founded my first publishing company in 2005, Legend Press, and with only a borrowed computer and no experience or contacts I licensed the second novel into seven editions and four languages. Five further companies were started between then and 2012, when the idea of licensing potential that had stayed with me since 2005 came to the fore. That led to my seventh company, IPR LIcense, the global rights licensing platform.RF: That’s great! I actually was at Frankfurt Book Fair, and felt it was more mess than â€Å"Messe†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ So I can understand the need for an online platform for trading rights, but how quick do you think big publishers can be to switch from a meeting-at-book-fairs model to an online one? Is your ambition to replace big international fairs or to complement them?TC: Itâ₠¬â„¢s not a case of switching from face-to-face meetings–publishing will always be a subjective and personable industry–but complementing them. Book fairs are now hubs of business and not the only place to do business, which does mean a smaller but more focused footfall.Technology not only means business can be completed 24 hours a day seven days a week, all year round, but at the book fair as well. We see a time shortly where meetings can be held and interested parties can then complete the deals immediately rather than waiting for the two-weeks-later follow-up.RF: What rights are most acquired by publishers on IPR License (digital, print, foreign, Film/TV, etc.)?TC: It is hard say as we have over 13 million titles on the platform, not only books but journals, manuscripts and screenplays too. The obvious focus is on print and in particular translations where there is huge potential, but we also see lots of for instance audio, large print and production materials deals being completed as well. The book is a single entity of intellectual property, one of many that can potentially be licensed.RF: How active are you in the negotiations and contracting that follow after a publisher has singled out a book whose rights they are interested in?TC: As much as the member would like us to be. In general we are a technology solution to allow the seller and buyer to directly complete deals. But we also have a team to help facilitate the transactions, so if a seller says they want a bit of help in the negotiation or contract and so on, we will provide that for them.RF: I think that’s great. It’s important to keep this individual approach to every single client even if you have a scalable model. Now over to the revenue stream; what’s your business model?TC: We charge a flat annual fee of  £99 for authors and a fee for publishers dependent on company turnover. We then take 15% commission from deals completed via the platform.When you join IPR License, you don’t only have access to market-leading technology but account management, licensing and marketing support. We usually say the annual fee is the equivalent to the fee from a single deal completed, a lot less for authors, so the risk is not unreasonable.RF: Now here’s something I’ve always been curious about: Some say indie authors start out self-publishing specifically in the hope of getting discovered by a traditional publisher. But on the other hand, you get the numerous stories of traditionally published authors switching to self-publishing as soon as their contracts end (or even sooner). From what you’ve seen at IPR, which wave is bigger: indie to trad or trad to indie? Or do you see a hybrid model becoming the norm?TC: We’ve seen a self-published author, Mary Wood, received a seven-book deal from Pan Macmillan and we have many authors who have reverted the rights from publishers and are looking to license them directly. Weâ⠂¬â„¢re not really focused on or interested in the trend, which I imagine is changeable anyway; we’re solely focused on helping the rights owner, whether an author, publisher or agent, license their valuable IP to third parties around the world.RF: What would be your top advice to self-publishing authors looking to sell their print or foreign rights? In other words, what do publishers look for on IPR License?TC: Get the basics rights: how the book is listed, what categories to use, what content to use to support the potential purchase of the rights, ensuring the correct sales and rights information is listed and so on. Also, making sure the key books are listed as key books as they are then prioritised in the search engine.RF: How should indie authors be using IPR? Should they be listing a particular kind of title? Or is the benefit of an open directory like IPR that even niche works can find an audience, and so all works ought to be listed?TC: We try to be as open as possibl e and we see licensing deals being completed for works completely across the spectrum. As well as getting the basics rights, as per above, I would also say to take a back step and think honestly about where the work may appeal and to tailor the listing details accordingly. A lot of authors say â€Å"perfect for film† or â€Å"should be big in the US† etc., but the most successful ones have a basic understanding of the markets and a realistic view of where the work will appeal.RF: You launched Rights Magazine last year to coincide with the five biggest international book fairs in 2014. What’s its content and who is it distributed to? Why a magazine?TC: It contains editorial, company news, publisher and author profiles and highlighted titles, etc. We have a market-leading technology platform but we also want to provide as much visibility and marketing for our members as possible and the magazine has been a very successful way of achieving that. It is distributed i n different ways at each book fair and is part of a wider promotional plan at each event.RF: From founder to founder, how do you see IPR License and Reedsy working together? What value would Reedsy add to IPR License (and its authors)?TC: I think two ambitious start-ups looking to be at the forefront of the market should have natural synergies, whether that means providing joint services, education or other forms of partnership, so I look forward to a long period of working together and discovering what can be offered to each other’s customers to improve their experience.RF: Easy one to finish: How do you envision IPR License in 5 years? Do you have any major milestones you plan to hit on the way?TC: Our plan is to be the industry standard tool for finding and transacting rights business. We are confident that will happen over the next 12 months, so saying where we’ll be in five years would sound far too grand.RF: Thank you for your time, Tom!Post edited by our lovely editor Becca!Find us on Twitter: Reedsy, IPR License, Tom Chalmers and Ricardo

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Organization Strategies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Organization Strategies - Essay Example Key environmental factors are predicted and their influence on the organization looked at and then optimum measures are taken so the organization can benefit from these environmental factors (Mintzberg 1976). Strategy looks at long-term direction and guides short term plans. It is understood at the top and middle levels of the organization. A strategy is as such clear that there is no way delicate. The results are defined; this is involved with the translation of strategies in to realities of the organizational structure, operations, policies and products. This in essence closes the gap between the companies' current position and where it would like to be. At last significant matters are identified and prioritized. Outcomes are positive statements of the changes the company needs to make to it and the results that it must carry out in its environment to fulfill strategic requirements. Outcomes are the steps for an organization towards strategic closure. Organization strategic plans are in general prepared of many interconnected elements; Vision, mission, Values, assessment, goals/objectives, strategy and outcomes. They have also major role in integration of strategic management principles and models. A feasible example of a strategic plan follows: The Vision gives a proposal about the objectives of the organization and broadly capture future services, markets and structures but do not go in to great detail. The Mission statement delineates customers, competitors and markets. It demonstrate a preferred location in a predicted future world" and a "bulls eye or target of the strategy."A mission should not consign a firm to what it must do in order to survive but what it chooses to do in order to thrive. Values are what the company believes to be true; values offer guides for staff on how to act within the company and ethical standards for all the stakeholders. Values set the company independently from its competitors and show the reliability of the organization. Measurements of the organization are the external and the internal forces, which will affect the company in making its mission and vision successful. These can be carried out in an environmental scan, which includes the following components; 1. Internal analysis of the firm 2. Analysis of the firm's industry (task environment) External macro environment (PEST analysis) A SWOT (Strengths/Weaknesses/ Opportunities/Threats) task can also capture the overviews of a business. Outside factors can vary from economic condition to changing technology and competition and are shown as threats and weaknesses. Inside factors can be anything which may belong from assets to liabilities and are usually shown as threats and weaknesses. Then the transition to the future is assessed with regard to industry and competitive environment, general and organization specific environment. PEST stands for political, economic, environmental and technological. The PEST analysis and explain the components of a macro environment within the organization and these can also be converted to fir in with a SWOT analysis. To create competitive advantage for an organization, it is identified that there are three strategies, Cost Leadership, Differentiation and Focus. The suitable standard strategy will make location of the firm to leverage its strengths and defend against the adverse effects of the five forces (Porter 1980). Cost Leadership comprehends